I have more experience with traditional genealogical research than with genetic genealogy, but I am learning more about using DNA testing in conjunction with documentary evidence. Roberta Estes' blog DNAeXplained (http://dna-explained.com/) is a helpful resource for learning about the use of DNA testing in genealogical research.
The book Boe (Bø) and Halvorson-Otterholt; Shared Roots in Telemark states that Jorgen Pederson Boe and Ingeborg Torsdatter Vatner's sons Per Bø (born 24 September 1852) and Tor (Thor) Bø (born 22 October 1854), had died in Norway in 1862 after drinking slough water.
The 1866 passenger list from the Vanadis shows that Peder Boe, age 13, and Thor Boe, age 11, sailed from Christiania (now Oslo) Norway to Quebec, Canada with Jorgen Boe and his family.
Passenger list, Vanadis, 1866. Ancestry.com. Canadian Passenger Lists, 1865-1935 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010.Original data: Passenger Lists, 1865–1935. Microfilm Publications T-479 to
T-520, T-4689 to T-4874, T-14700 to T-14939, C-4511 to C-4542. Library
and Archives Canada, n.d. RG 76-C. Department of Employment and
Immigration fonds. Library and Archives Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
In "The People from Telemark in Chippewa, Yellow Medicine and Lac qui
Parle Counties"(originally published in Norwegian in Telesoga 20 (July 1914), pages 3-4; translated by Grace Foss and reprinted in Telemark to America Volume II: Settlements), Torkel Oftelie and Ole (Olav) Jacobson Haugland stated "Among those that came were Jørgen Pederson Bø and his sons Jørgen, Tor, Per, Gregar and Sveinong and daughter Ingebjør" (page 135) and "His sons, Tor and Per, got 'nerve sickness' and died a few years after they came here" (page 136).
Peter, age 16, and Tola, age 15, were enumerated in the household of "Zerger Peterson" in the 1870 United States census. The composition of this family is consistent with that of Jorgen Pedersen Boe's family.
1870 United States Census, Canisteo, Dodge, Minnesota, population schedule, page 10. Available from Ancestry.com. 1870 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009.
In the 1875 Minnesota state census, Seder Pederson, age 22, and Tom Pederson, age 20, are listed below Jorgen Pederson, age 58, and Engebor Pederson, age 46.
Minnesota State Census, 1875. Assessment District 2, Chippewa County, Minnesota, 1 May 1875. Ancestry.com. Minnesota, Territorial and State Censuses, 1849-1905 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007.Original data: Minnesota Historical Society. Minnesota State Population Census Schedules, 1865-1905. St. Paul, MN, USA: Minnesota Historical Society, 1977. Microfilm. Reels 1-47 and 107-164.
Records from the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America show that Thor J. Boe died on 3 October 1878 and was buried on 5 October 1878 – sixteen years after his supposed death!
Burial record, Thor J. Boe. St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Bellingham, Lac qui Parle County, Minnesota. 5 October 1878. Ancestry.com. U.S., Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, Records, 1875-1940 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015.
Evangelical Lutheran Church of America. ELCA,
Birth, Marriage, Deaths. Evangelical Lutheran Church of America,
References Boe (Bø) and Halvorson-Otterholt; Shared Roots in Telemark.
Compiled by Melvin and Alpha M. (Boe) Brodshaug, 1984. Published by
Arlene (Boe) Christensen and Marjorie (Boe) Bergee. Printed by Anundsen
Publishing Co., Decorah, Iowa.
Telelaget of America. Telemark to America: Volume II: Settlements. 2nd ed. Telelaget of America, 1992, 2009.
This map shows the landscape of Landkreis (district) Mayen-Koblenz and the surrounding area. My 4th-great-grandfather Nikolaus Schneider was stationed in Koblenz when he was in the Gendarmerie. He moved to Remagen after he married. Although Remagen is located in Landkreis Ahrweiler, it is also shown on the map.
My 2nd-great-grandfather's brother Ola Peter Troedson died on 12 May 1926 in Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. After his death, a notice appeared in the Brisbane Courier, announcing that probate of the will would be granted to his daughter Ellen Louisa Troedson.
Brisbane Courier, 22 May 1926, page 3. Available from Trove.
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF QUEENSLAND
In the WILL of OLA PETER TROEDSON, late of Agnes street, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, in the State of Queensland, Freeholder, Deceased.
Notice is hereby given that, after the expiration of fourteen days from the date of the publication hereof, application will be made to this Honourable Court that PROBATE of the WILL of the abovenamed Ola Peter Troedson, deceased, may be granted to ELLEN LOUISA TROEDSON, of Agnes street, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, aforesaid Spinster, a natural and lawful Daughter of the said deceased, and THE UNION TRUSTEE COMPANY OF AUSTRALIA LIMITED, of Brisbane aforesaid the Executors named in the said Will. Any person interested who desires to object to the pallicattion, or to be heard upon it, may file a Caveat in the Registry at any time before the grant is made.
Dated this Seventeenth day of May, 1926.
F. W. MURPHY, Solicitor for the said Ellen Louisa Troedson and The Union Trustee Company of Australia Limited, Brisbane.
Comparing the text of the clipping with the text on the Web sites, there seems to be a typographical error in the second to last line. It should read "Und wer was andres dachte." It is also possible that the person who typed the clipping remembered that lyric incorrectly.
Commonwealth of Kentucky, Bureau of Vital Statistics. Certificate of death, Laverne Marie Win'e. Ancestry.com. Kentucky, Death Records, 1852-1963 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007.
Original data: Kentucky. Vital Statistics Original Death Certificates – Microfilm (1911-1955). Microfilm rolls #7016130-7041803. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives, Frankfort, Kentucky.
Laverne Marie Win'e was born on 30 April 1942 in Jefferson County, Kentucky. She was the daughter of Frederick Anthony Win'e and Anna Mary Stauble. She died of bronchopneumonia on 28 December 1942 in Louisville General Hospital, Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky, and was buried in St. Michael Cemetery in Louisville on 30 December 1942.
Laverne was my fourth cousin twice removed. She and her mother were descendants of my 5th-great-grandparents Anton Stäuble and Maria Elisabeth Gaßmann (or, written without using the eszett, Gassmann).
A gendarmerie is a paramilitary police force. France's National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) was created on 16 February 1791, when the Maréchaussée Royale was renamed. During the French Revolution, the gendarmerie was an auxiliary to France's National Guard. Small brigades of the gendarmerie were spread out over France. The gendarmes (men in the gendarmerie) were usually mounted. They were housed in barracks. The brigades formed companies, which covered departments. The companies formed squadrons, and squadrons formed legions.
As Napoleon conquered areas of Europe, the gendarmerie spread. It was introduced in the Rhineland region of Germany in 1798. By 1809, there were 15,500 men in the gendarmerie; 527 of them were in the Rhineland. The 25th gendarmerie legion consisted of four departments in the Rhineland, which were located in Köln (Cologne), Koblenz, Mainz, and Trier. The departments were patrolled by two squadrons. The gendarmes searched for draft dodgers and deserters. Mayors, prefects, and sub-prefects could call on them if they anticipated disorder in their communities. Approximately one quarter of the men were local; the others were French, but were supposed to know German.
On 20 December 1808, the French troops left the Rhineland. However, the gendarmerie continued. The remaining gendarmes served the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.
My 4th-great-grandfather Nikolaus Schneider was a gendarme. He was born about 1777 in Düngenheim, Cochem-Zell, Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Germany. When he married in 1818, he was a gendarme stationed in Koblenz.
Excerpt from the marriage record of Nikolaus Schneider and Anna Maria Fasbender, 6 January 1818. Remagen, Ahrweiler, Rheinland-Pfalz. Stadtarchiv Remagen.
Excerpt from the death record of Nikolaus Schneider, 7 November 1835. Remagen, Ahrweiler, Rheinland-Pfalz. Stadtarchiv Remagen.His profession was "Standes preußischer Gendarm" (former Prussian gendarme).
Koblenz (Regierungsbezirk). Amtsblatt der Preußischen Regierung zu Koblenz: Jahrgang 1817. Section on security and police from the official journal of the Prussian government to Koblenz, 1817. Page 95. Available from Google Books.
I am proud of a recent discovery that I made. Although I do not yet have sufficient proof that the discovery relates to a direct ancestor, if my theory about my 3rd-great-grandfather Joseph Tarkington's parentage (that he was the son of Joseph S. Tarkington and Amelia Owen/Owens/Owings) is correct, I have learned more about his ancestry.
On page 118 of Probate Genealogy of Williamson County, Tennessee (1799-1832) by Albert L. Johnson, Jr. (Franklin, TN: Genealogy Pubs, 2002), there is a reference to guardianship records, minute book 1, page 267. William Tarkington was appointed guardian for Amelia (Milly) Owens, the minor orphan daughter of Elijah and Nancy Owens. Isaac Tarkington and Benjamin Tarkington [William's sons] were sureties. Page 32 of Williamson County, Tennessee County Court Minutes, May 1806-April 1812 by Carol Wells (Westminster, MD: Heritage Books, 2008) contains additional information: on 17 April 1807, William Tarkington was appointed guardian of Amelia Owings, minor orphan of Elijah Owings. Bond was $5000, and Isaac Tarkington and Benj. Tarkington were his security.
I decided to do more research on Amelia's family to try to find evidence that could help me prove my theory. When the Tennessee, Wills and Probate Records, 1779-2008 collection was added to Ancestry.com, I located the probate file for Elijah Owings. What a find that was!
In addition to Elijah's will and estate inventory, the file included documents pertaining to the sale of his land. In 1806, a portion of Elijah's land on the Big Harpeth River in Williamson County, Tennessee was sold to pay his debts. He had appointed his widow Nancy executrix of the will. Two of the parties named in an indenture dated 17 November 1806 were "Nancy Cox formerly Nancy Owings Executrix of the last will & testament of Elijah Owings deceased & James Cox husband to said Nancy."
Elijah Owings probate file. Tennessee County, District and Probate Courts. Williamson County, Tennessee. Ancestry.com. Tennessee, Wills and Probate Records, 1779-2008 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015.
The names Nancy Cox and James Cox were familiar to me. Nancy Cox, the wife of James Cox, was the daughter of William Tarkington. William Tarkington's will mentions his daughter Nancy Cox, his son-in-law James Cox, and their children Jesse and Caroline Cox.
Ancestry.com. Tennessee Divorce and Other Records, 1800-1965 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Tennessee. County records.
Nashville, Tennessee: Tennessee State Library and Archives. Microfilm
roll numbers 99 to 108, 115, 336 to 337, 428 to 431, 519, A-4098,
A-5278, B-1 to B-9, B-44 to B-127, B-314, B-441 to B-445, B-471 to
B-473, B-1607 to B-1613, and B-1781 to B-1789. Williamson County: Divorce Files, 1900-1950; Divorce, Probate, and
Other Records, 1800-1899; School Censuses, 1838-1918; Miscellaneous
Records (ex. Apprentice, Land Sales, Liquor Licenses, Slave Records);
Birth and Death Records, 1920-1939).
Nancy Owings was Nancy Tarkington! James Cox was her second husband. No wonder William Tarkington was Amelia Owens' guardian; he was her maternal grandfather. A guardian was probably appointed for her because her mother was selling some of her father's land.
If my theory is correct, I have identified the maiden name of Joseph Tarkington's maternal grandmother, and he had Tarkington ancestors on both sides of his family.
The maps below show the absolute distribution and relative distribution (considering population density) of the surname Lindlohr in Germany. They were created using Christoph Stöpel's Geogen 3.0 surname mapping site. A newer version, Geogen 4.0, is now available. Both versions use data from German telephone directories.
The maps show the highest concentration of the surname in Landkreis Neuwied. The next highest concentration is in Landkreis Ahrweiler, which is across the Rhine River.
My known Lindlohr ancestors are:
3rd-great-grandmother: Anna Sibylle Lindlohr
born 20 December 1823, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
married Heinrich Josef Hellmann 24 June 1845, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
married Johann Wilhelm Schneider (my 3rd-great-grandfather) 20 April 1853, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
died 2 April 1862, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
4th-great-grandfather: Gottfried Lindlohr
born 7 February 1791, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
married Agathe Weiler
died 13 June 1841, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
5th-great-grandfather: Johann Lindlohr
baptized 19 January 1760, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
married Anna Adelheid Wintzen 12 November 1782, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
died 3 February 1814, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
6th-great-grandfather: Hermann Lindlohr
married Anna Maria Classen 31 May 1746, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
married Anna Margarete Brandenburg (my 6th-great-grandmother) 1 May 1758, Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
buried 24 June 1760,
Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
The first use of ether as an anesthetic in 1846 by William Thomas Green Morgan. Oil painting by Ernest Board, circa 1920. Public domain. Available from Wikimedia Commons.
World Anesthaesia Day, observed on October 16, commemorates the first recorded demonstration of ether as an anesthetic.
William Thomas Green Morton, a dentist, had previously administered ether to a patient on 30
September 1846 before extracting a tooth. After reading about the
procedure, Dr. Henry Jacob Bigelow, a Boston surgeon, arranged for a demonstration.
On 16 October 1846 at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, Morton used ether to anesthetize Edward Gilbert Abbott. Dr. John Collins Warren then removed a tumor from Abbott's neck.
The use of ether as an anesthetic made painless surgery possible. Before the development of anesthesia, alcohol was often used to try to control the pain of surgery. Our ancestors who had surgical procedures performed both before and after the use of anesthesia must have really appreciated this advancement!
October 15 is Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day. It is a day to remember the losses that parents have experienced as a result of miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies, molar pregnancies, stillbirths, and infant death.
On 25 October 1988, President Ronald Reagan issued Proclamation 5890, which designated October 1988 as Pregnancy and Infant Loss Awareness Month.
In 2002, Robyn Bear, Lisa Brown, and Tammy Novak started the October 15th Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day Campaign. October 15 was chosen as the date because it was in the middle of Pregnancy and Infant Loss Awareness Month. 20 states signed proclamations recognizing October 15, 2002 as Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day. All 50 states now either sign proclamations annually or have permanent proclamations.
People are invited to light a candle on October 15 at 7:00 PM in all time zones and to keep it burning for at least an hour. This will create a wave of light around the world for 24 hours.
Today I am remembering two great-uncles that I never knew. For years I believed that my paternal grandfather Henry Cornelius Gatlin was an only child. After I began researching my family history, I learned about his two brothers.
His mother and my great-grandmother, Anna Gertrude Tarkington, gave birth to a baby boy on 12 June 1907 in Nashville, Tennessee. His name was Robert Leland Taylor, and he was my grandfather's older half-brother. He only lived for a few weeks; he died on 4 July 1907. According to his death certificate, the cause of death was congenital debility and marasmus.
I have many colorful ancestors and collateral relatives. It would have been hard to choose just one to focus on this week, but since I already wrote about many of them in previous 52 Ancestors posts, I have chosen one I have not yet profiled for the 52 Ancestors Challenge.
John Reynold Gatlin was born on 10 April 1889 in Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee. He was the son of my 2nd-great-grandparents John William Morton Gatlin and Sarah Claire "Sadie" Dyer.
Nashville, Tennessee City Health Department, Division of Vital Statistics. Affidavit for Correcting a Record. File #224, John R. Gatlin. 10 August 1942. Ancestry.com. Tennessee, Delayed Birth Records, 1869-1909 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012.
Tennessee Delayed Birth Records, 1869–1909. Nashville, Tennessee: Tennessee State Library and Archives.
As a young man, he joined the United States Navy. I have not yet discovered the date of his enlistment. Although he is listed at his parents' address in the 1910 Nashville City Directory, he was not in their household when the 1910 United States Census was enumerated, and I could not find him elsewhere. He was probably in the navy at that time. If, as he later stated, he was in the navy for six years, he had probably enlisted several years earlier.
On 7 July 1911, John and his brother William got into a fight. They were in Bloomington, Indiana, where their sister Mary Florence (Gatlin) Pate was living. George Alexander, who witnessed the fight while sitting on his front porch, went inside and came back out with his gun. One of the brothers shot at him, and he was seriously injured. The Gatlin brothers were pursued by the police.
Indianapolis Star, 8 July 1911, page 1
John claimed that he had been the one who had shot George Alexander. I wonder if he was trying to protect his brother William, who was a convicted felon.
Indianapolis Star, 9 July 1911, page 16
By 1912, John was in Charlestown Naval Prison in Boston, Massachusetts, serving time for desertion.
From Department of Correction Indiana State Prison records for William Gatlin, 1912.
From Department of Correction Indiana State Prison records for William Gatlin, 1912.
By October 1914, he was out of naval prison and was living in Chicago, Illinois, where he was working as a bookbinder. On 1 October 1914, he, a man named Charles Harris, and two men that Harris knew began driving from Chicago to Bloomington, Indiana. John planned to visit his sister. As they approached Lafayette, Indiana, the three other men beat John, stole a diamond stud and $103, and threw John out of the car.
Indianapolis Star, 3 October 1914, page 4
William K. Wells, John's brother-in-law, was the owner of the car. At the time of the incident, John's sister Mary Florence was married to Downie Campbell Pate, and his sister Anna was married to Frank Joseph Smith. John was probably married to William K. Wells' sister, but I have not yet determined who she was.
On 7 October 1916, John was at Frank Morilli's saloon at 537 North Clark Street, Chicago, Illinois. He and several other men were causing trouble, and Morilli threw them out. John tried to go back inside the saloon, but Morilli shot him in the right leg.
Chicago Tribune, 8 October 1916, page 4
John's World War I draft registration card stated that his occupation was "ruler" but he was unemployed, that he was single, that he was an ordinary seaman in the U.S. Navy for 6 years, and that he had been dishonorably discharged.
World War I draft registration card, John R. Gatlin. Ancestry.com. U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2005.
United States, Selective Service System. World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918.
Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. M1509,
4,582 rolls. Imaged from Family History Library microfilm.
In 1920, John was living in a rooming house in Chicago which was owned by Harry R. Arthur. He worked in a factory as a paper ruler. A 21 year old woman named Ermer Gatlin was listed underneath him. Although the relationship given (Roomer) was to the head of the household, she was probably John's wife. Both were listed as married in the census.
On 16 April 1923 in Cook County, Illinois, John married Pearl L. Charles.
Ancestry.com. Cook County, Illinois Marriage Indexes, 1912-1942 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.
In 1930, John lived in Chicago with his parents and his brothers Walter and Bruce. He was listed as married, but his wife was not in the household. The census record states that John was 18 years old when he first married. This may have been his marriage to the sister of William K. Wells, or he may have had yet another wife. He was working as a printer in a shop.
I think that the two items below probably refer to John and his wife Pearl. Although the marriage date is slightly off, it is close. John's sister Mary Florence (Gatlin) Pate lived in Bloomington, Indiana, and his sister Anna was living in Detroit, Michigan. I have not yet been able to locate any information about the child.
Logansport Pharos-Tribune (Logansport, Indiana), 22 January 1931, page 9
Logansport Pharos-Tribune (Logansport, Indiana), 24 March 1931, page 3
At the time of the 1940 U.S. Census, John was living with his brother Walter and mother Sadie. The handwriting is difficult to read, but it looks like his occupation was night watchman at City Yard.
On 9 December 1940 in Chicago, John married Mrs. Kathleen Culberson.
Cook County, Illinois marriage license and return, John R. Gatlin and Mrs. Kathleen P. Culberson, 9 December 1940.
This marriage apparently did not last long. On John's World War II draft registration card, he listed his mother as the person who would always know his address.
The National Archives at St. Louis; St. Louis, Missouri; World War II Draft Cards (Fourth Registration), for The State of Illinois; State Headquarters: Illinois; Microfilm Series: M2097; Microfilm Roll: 95. Ancestry.com. U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010.
John died in Chicago on 13 July 1945. He fell on a public sidewalk and fractured his skull. Since he lived such a colorful life, I wonder if there was more to the story. Perhaps he had been drinking. Maybe someone pushed him, although since his death was ruled an accident, it probably did not look like someone intended to kill him.
Illinois Department of Public Health, Division of Vital Statistics. Coroner's certificate of death. John R. Gatlin. Filed 19 July 1945.
John was buried in St. Joseph's Cemetery in River Grove, Cook County, Illinois.
My 2nd-great-grandfather Carl Joseph Schneider was born on 22 Jan 1855
Erpel, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. (The birthdate on the tombstone is incorrect.) He married Christina Nagel on
31 January 1878 in Bonn, Germany. She was born on 27 Feb 1851
Kendenich, Rhein-Erft, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany. They moved to Remagen, Ahrweiler, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany after their marriage. In 1892, they immigrated to St, Louis, Missouri with their children. Carl died in St. Louis on 5 November 1901. Christina died on 16 January 1934, also in St. Louis. They were buried in Sts. Peter & Paul Catholic Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri, in Section 035, Lot 0160.
General Casimir Pulaski plaque, Cambridge Commons, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photo by Daderot (Own work) [Public domain], 14 February 2010. Available from Wikimedia Commons.
October 11 is General Pulaski Memorial Day, in honor of Casimir (Kazimierz) Pulaski. In 1929, Congress passed a resolution designating October 11 as General Pulaski Memorial Day. Since 1931, a presidential proclamation has been issued for the holiday every year.
Kazimierz Michał Władysław Wiktor Pułaski was born on 6 March 1745 in Warsaw, Poland. He and his father Józef Pulaski were among the founders of the Bar Confederation, an association formed to defend Poland against Russia and King Stanisław August Poniatowski. Pulaski became the commander after his father died in 1769. One of his military accomplishments was taking control of the Jasna Góra Monastery in September 1770. In 1771 members of the Bar Confederation attempted to kidnap King Stanisław August Poniatowski, and Pulaski was implicated. He went to Silesia, Prussia in 1772 and met with Franciszka Corvin-Krasińska, the wife of Charles of Saxony, Duke of Courland. He went to France in 1773, and attempted to join the French Army, but was unsuccessful. He spent some time in a debtors' prison in 1775. He met Benjamin Franklin in 1777. Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette recruited him for service in the Continental Army.
On 23 July 1777, Pulaski arrived in Marblehead, Massachusetts. He traveled to Pennsylvania in August, and met George Washington. His first battle in North America was the Battle of Brandywine on 11 September 1777. Pulaski gathered troops together and charged in order to prevent the British from retreating. On 15 September 1777, Washington made Pulaski a brigadier general in the Continental Army cavalry.
Pulaski created a new cavalry regiment, Pulaski's Legion. Its headquarters were in Baltimore, Maryland, and most of the men were recruited there.They participated in the Little Egg Harbor Massacre on 15 October 1778.
On 8 May 1779, Pulaski arrived in Charleston, South Carolina.In September, he headed to Georgia. Pulaski's regiment served as advance guard for Admiral Charles Hector, comte d'Estaing's troops. Pulaski commanded both the French and American cavalry on 9 October 1779 at the Siege of Savannah. He was wounded by grapeshot and carried off the battlefield. He died on 11 or 15 October 1779.
My 5th-great-grandfather Stephen Mayo also participated in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown. He and his brother Benjamin were at Valley Forge together.
Pulaski County, Kentucky is named for Casimir Pulaski. My 5th-great-grandparents Andrew and Hannah (Hardgrave) Russell lived in Pulaski County, Kentucky, and my 4th-great-grandmother Sobrina Russell was probably born there.
A year after the death of Rosina and John Troedson, my 2nd-great-grandfather's brother Ola Peter Troedson and his children placed this notice in the Telegraph (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia):
The Telegraph, 10 June 1905, page 6
Rosina Catharine Louise Walter was born on 4 December 1856 in Pfedelbach, Hohenlohekreis, Württemberg, Germany. She was the daughter of Christoph Walter and Anna Christina Zendler. In 1865, Rosina and her parents and siblings sailed from Hamburg, Germany to Australia and settled in Queensland. On 20 August 1878 in Queensland, she married Ola Peter Troedson. They had nine children. Rosina died in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia on 11 June 1904.
Rosina and Ola Peter's son John Frederick Troedson was born on 17 July 1881 in Brisbane. He died on 5 June 1904, a little over a month before what would have been his 23rd birthday.
Long before Christopher Columbus "discovered" America, Leif Ericson landed there. In 1960, archaeologists found evidence that a Norse settlement had been established in Newfoundland around 1000 AD. Leif Ericson is honored on October 9, Leif Ericson Day.
Although Columbus Day is still celebrated, it has long been known that Leif Ericson arrived in America far earlier than Christopher Columbus. In 1877, Rasmus Bjorn Anderson published the book America Not Discovered By Columbus. An obituary published in the Racine Journal-Times (Racine, Wisconsin) included quotes from Anderson about Leif Ericson Day and his book.
Racine Journal-Times, 3 March 1936, page 16
In 1923, the Brooklyn Daily Eagle published the article "Why Nordics of United States Should Honor Leif Ericson Who Discovered America 500 Years Before Columbus."
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 30 September 1923, page 33
This is an excerpt from the article:
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 30 September 1923, page 33
A year later, the following advertisement appeared in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle:
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 October 1924, page 32
Scandinavian societies hold celebrations in honor of Leif Ericson Day. In 1927, one of the celebrations was held by Bj. Bjornson lodge, Sons of Norway.
Oakland Tribune (Oakland, CA), 13 September 1927, page 5
The Leif Ericson Viking Ship holds an annual ceremony which includes a ship sailing and a banquet. A different Scandinavian country is featured each year. This year's featured country is Iceland.