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Saturday, April 18, 2015

52 Ancestors: Week 16 "Live Long": Walter Floyd Boe

The Week 16 theme for Amy Johnson Crow's 52 Ancestors Challenge is "Live Long". One ancestor that came to mind was my great-grandmother Ellen Victoria (Dahlquist) Anderson (8 September 1886 - 26 April 1986), who lived to the age of 99. But since I have already written about her, I  decided to write about another relative who also lived to the age of 99: Walter Floyd Boe, my maternal grandfather's half-brother.

Walter Floyd Boe was born on 5 June 1901 in Minnesota. He was the son of my great-grandfather John Boe and his first wife Signe Olson. On 31 August 1901, Walter was baptized in the Lutheran Church in Benson, Swift County, Minnesota.

Baptism, Walther Floyd Boe. 31 August 1901. Trinity and Our Savior's Lutheran, Benson, Minnesota. Ministerial records, combined, 1900-1917. Available from Ancestry.com. Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, Records, 1875-1940 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015. Original data: Evangelical Lutheran Church of America. ELCA, Birth, Marriage, Deaths. Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, Chicago, Illinois.

By 1905, the Boe family was living in Mason City, Cerro Gordo, Iowa.

Iowa state census, 1905. Mason City, Cerro Gordo, Iowa. Available from Ancestry.com. Iowa, State Census Collection, 1836-1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. 

Shortly afterward, Walter's parents separated. He, his mother, and his sisters Lillian and Gladys were in California by 1914, when his half-sister Vivian Brazier was born in Tehama County. His half-sister Cecil Brazier was born in Butte County, California in 1916.

In 1920, Walter and his mother and sisters were living in Stockton, San Joaquin County, California. Walter was using the surname Brazier. He was working as a machinist.

1920 United States census, Stockton Ward 3, San Joaquin County, California, population schedule, enumeration district 173, sheet no. 18B. Available from Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.

On 24 December 1929, Walter married Vilo Ulala Christiansen in Los Angeles, California. They were married by Bishop Albin Hoglund of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. At the time of their marriage, Walter worked as a locomotive fireman for the Southern Pacific Railway.

California, County Marriages, 1850-1952, index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K8NY-WRV), Walter Floyd Boe Brazier and Vilo Ulala Christensen, 24 Dec 1929; citing Los Angeles, California, United States, county courthouses, California; FHL microfilm 2,074,770.

California, County Marriages, 1850-1952, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-29942-4027-43?cc=1804002), Walter Floyd Boe Brazier and Vilo Ulala Christensen, 24 Dec 1929; citing Los Angeles, California, United States, county courthouses, California; FHL microfilm 2,074,770.

In 1930, Walter and Viola lived in Los Angeles with Vilo's mother, Emma (Jones) Christiansen. Walter was working as a locomotive engineer.

1930 United States census, Los Angeles City, Ward 13, Los Angeles County, California, population schedule, enumeration district 19-764, sheet 12A. Available from Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2002.

In 1931, Walter's listing in the Los Angeles city directory indicated that he was an engineer in the Garfield Building.

Los Angeles, California City Directory, 1931. Available from Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1821-1989 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011

By 1939, Walter and Vilo were living in Fresno, California with Walter's mother and half-sister Cecil.
Polk's Fresno (California) City Directory, 1939.Los Angeles, CA: R. L. Polk & Co. Available from Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1821-1989 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.

By 1940, Walter and Vilo were living in Chowchilla, Madera County, California, and had had two of their daughters. Two more daughters were born later. Walter was working as an electrical engineer at a creamery.

1940 United States census, Chowchilla, Madera County, California,population schedule, enumeration district 20-1, sheet no. 1B. Available from Ancestry.com. 1940 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012.

Walter eventually returned to his birth surname, Boe. He and his family moved to Butte, Chico County, California. In 1983, he was listed in the city directory as a junk collector.

1983 Chico (Butte County, Calif.) City Directory. R. L. Polk & Co. Available from Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1821-1989 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.

Walter's wife Vilo died on 19 August 1990. Walter died on 15 February 2001. They are buried in Glen Oaks Memorial Park in Chico, Butte County, California.

 Photo by Adriana at Find A Grave

Friday, April 17, 2015

Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, Records, 1875-1940

The records of the Evangelican Lutheran Church of America, 1875-1940, are now available on Ancestry.com. This is great news for me, because I have many Swedish and Norwegian ancestors who attended Lutheran churches. The records have been available on Archives.com for a couple of years, but I could never figure out a way to search only that collection, or to browse images without first doing a search and viewing a record. Since Scandinavians may be listed under patronymics or surnames (in the case of Norwegians, they often used the name of their farm in Norway), and there are so many people with the same patronymics, it is useful to be able to browse the records for areas where ancestral families lived. I know that this collection contains records for some of my Norwegian relatives in Minnesota. I hope to be able to find more records.

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Thriller Thursday: Robbed, Beaten, and Thrown Out of Car

On 1 October 1914, my great-grandfather's brother John Reynold Gatlin began a drive from Chicago, Illinois to Indiana, where his (and my great-grandfather's) older sister Mary Florence (Gatlin) Pate lived. His friend Charles Harris accompanied him on the trip. Two other men that Charles Harris knew joined them while they were still in Chicago. When they were near Lafayette, Indiana, John was beaten by the three men and thrown out of the car. In addition to the car, the men stole a diamond stud and $103.

I suspect that there may be more to the story. John had been in trouble with the law before.

The car belonged to John's brother-in-law William K. Wells. I am still trying to determine how the two men were connected. John's older sister was married to Downie Campbell Pate. His other sister Anna was married to Frank Joseph Smith at that time. In 1920, John was enumerated in the United States census with his apparent wife Ermer, but her age was given as 21. He had at least two subsequent marriages. On his World War I draft registration card, John stated that he was single. William K. Wells' sister could be an unidentified wife.

Indianapolis Star, 3 October 1914, page 4

Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Tax Day

Since 1955, April 15 has been Tax Day. Federal income taxes began during the Civil War, when  the Revenue Act of 1861 was passed. The Revenue Act was repealed in 1871. The first peacetime income tax was imposed in 1894, when the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act was passed. One year later, the Supreme Court ruled that the tax was unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company. The Sixteenth Amendment (passed on 2 July 1909 and ratified on 3 February 1913) gave the United States Congress the right to impose a federal income tax. From 1913 10 1918, the deadline for filing tax returns was March 1. It was then changed to March 15. In 1955, April 15 became the deadline.

Other taxes have been collected in the United States since colonial times. In 1800, my 5th-great-grandfather Andrew Russell was listed as a taxpayer in Pulaski County, Kentucky. He was the only white male over 21 in his household. (He had married my 5th-great-grandmother Hannah Hardgrave a year earlier.) He had two horses.

1800 Tax List, Pulaski County, Kentucky. Pulaski County (Kentucky). Tax Assessor. Tax books 1799-1822. Frankfort, Kentucky: Kentucky State Historical Society, 1952-1953. Family History Library microfilm 8209.

In 1811, my 6th-great-grandfather Francis Hardgrave (the father of Hannah, Andrew Russell's wife) was listed as a taxpayer in Davidson County, Tennessee.

1811 Tax List, Davidson County, Tennessee. Ancestry.com. Tennessee, Early Tax List Records, 1783-1895 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2013. Original data: Early Tax Lists of Tennessee. Microfilm, 12 rolls. The Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville, Tennessee.

References
April 15: More Than You Ever Wanted to Know About Tax Day
A Century of Income Taxes: The History of Tax Day
History of the US Income Tax 
Lincoln imposes first federal income tax
Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company
Revenue Act of 1861
16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Federal Income Tax (1913)
United States Taxation
Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act

Monday, April 13, 2015

Amanuensis Monday: Joseph S. Tarkington's Southern Claims Commission Claim: Cross-Examination of Witness, Alfred Smith

When Joseph S. Tarkington filed Louisiana claim #12265 with the Southern Claims Commission, another of his witnesses was his former slave Alfred Smith. I do not know if Alfred was related to Joseph's other former slave who testified, Jack Smith. Alfred's cross-examination is transcribed below.

Cross-examined by the Commissioner - Witness answers as follows:

My name is Alfred Smith, I am 40 or thereabout. I live in New Orleans and am engaged as fire-man on a Mississippi river boat. I was born a slave of the claimant and lived with him until the end of the war. I do believe that the claimant always had been a strong Union man, during the war I have often heard him talk against the Confederacy and say he did not want anything to do with it and would not be mixed up with it. I have heard men threaten to whip the claimant and drive him out of the parish on account of his Union sentiments, and for a long time he could not go to town for fear of these threats being executed. The claimant and his wife often gave United States soldiers food, milk, &c. but he never gave the Confederates anything at all - they were too much against him. I used often to go to Franklin with the claimant and the people would beset him to join them in Secession and threaten to whip him if he did not, but he would always refuse and take no part at all in the fuss. One time I remember of they were going to cow-hide him because he would not join them and had he stood they would have whiped [sic] him, he ran away manfully jumped into his skiff and went home. I feel sure that the claimant never could prove loyalty to the Confederacy if the same had been maintained as a separate government because of the reasons I have already expressed. I have no interest in this claim at all.                   

                                                               his
                                                    Alfred  X  Smith
                                                             mark


 Sworn before me this 25th day of June 1872
                                              Wm. Grant
                                              Special Comm


Cross-examination of witness, Alfred Smith, 25 June 1872; Orleans Parish, Louisiana claim no. 12265 (Joseph S. Tarkington), Allowed Case Files, Southern Claims Commission, 1871-1880; Settled Accounts and Claims, Third Auditor. Records of the Treasury Department Accounting Officers, Record Group 217. National Archives, Washington, DC. Available from Fold3.

Cross-examination of witness, Alfred Smith, 25 June 1872; Orleans Parish, Louisiana claim no. 12265 (Joseph S. Tarkington), Allowed Case Files, Southern Claims Commission, 1871-1880; Settled Accounts and Claims, Third Auditor. Records of the Treasury Department Accounting Officers, Record Group 217. National Archives, Washington, DC. Available from Fold3.

Cross-examination of witness, Alfred Smith, 25 June 1872; Orleans Parish, Louisiana claim no. 12265 (Joseph S. Tarkington), Allowed Case Files, Southern Claims Commission, 1871-1880; Settled Accounts and Claims, Third Auditor. Records of the Treasury Department Accounting Officers, Record Group 217. National Archives, Washington, DC. Available from Fold3.

Sunday, April 12, 2015

Halifax Resolves

Halifax Resolves plaque, North Carolina State Capitol, Raleigh, North Carolina. Photo by Daderot [Public domain], 5 October 2011. Available from Wikimedia Commons.

On 12 April 1776, the Fourth North Carolina Provincial Congress authorized North Carolina's delegates to the Second Continental Congress (Joseph Hewes, William Hooper, and John Penn) to vote for independence. This action was the first to call for independence. It was directed to all the colonies and their delegates at the Continental Congress. Because the Fourth Provincial Congress met in Halifax, North Carolina, the action became known as the Halifax Resolves.

References
Halifax Resolves
The Halifax Resolves (North Carolina History: A Digital Textbook)
Halifax Resolves (North Carolina Manual)
Historic Halifax: Halifax and the Revolution
North Carolina Advocates Independence