Covering genealogy, family history, historical events and places, and anything else related!

Wednesday, December 31, 2014

New Year's Eve

Since today is New Year's Eve, I am posting newspaper clippings from New Year's Eves of the past.

Public Ledger (Memphis, Tennessee), 31 December 1880, page 4

St. Louis Republic, 31 December 1901, page 3

Nashville Globe, 30 December 1910, page 4

Chicago Tribune, 31 December 1915, page 2

Vidette-Messenger (Valparaiso, Indiana), 31 December 1927, page 4

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Tuesday's Tip: Meyers Orts Gazetteer has made Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire (Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs) available free. The gazetteer was compiled in 1912, and it includes all areas that were part of the German Empire before World War I. If you have German ancestors, this is a great resource to use; it will give you information about locations in Germany, such as a town's population, government district, churches, post office, and schools.

The beginning of Volume I contains a list of abbreviations, which will help in understanding the entries. The excerpt below explains the abbreviations for Post, Telegraph, Fernsprecher (telephone).

Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Erich Uetrecht. Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. 5th Edition. Leipzig, Germany: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913. Vol.I, page X.

Below are the entries for some of my ancestral towns:

Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Erich Uetrecht. Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. 5th Edition. Leipzig, Germany: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913. Vol. I, page 208.

Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Erich Uetrecht. Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. 5th Edition. Leipzig, Germany: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913. Vol. I, page 383.

Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Erich Uetrecht. Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. 5th Edition. Leipzig, Germany: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913. Vol. I, page 453.

Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Erich Uetrecht. Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. 5th Edition. Leipzig, Germany: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913. Vol. I, page 598.

Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Erich Uetrecht. Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. 5th Edition. Leipzig, Germany: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913. Vol. I, page 777.

Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Erich Uetrecht. Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. 5th Edition. Leipzig, Germany: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913. Vol. I, page 951.

Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Erich Uetrecht. Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. 5th Edition. Leipzig, Germany: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913. Vol. II, page 330.

Meyers Gazetteer of the German Empire [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Erich Uetrecht. Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs. 5th Edition. Leipzig, Germany: Bibliographisches Institut, 1912-1913. Vol. II, page 577.

As you can see, I found quite a bit of information about my ancestral towns! Some entries are much longer than others.

Monday, December 29, 2014

Madness Monday: City Sanitarium, St. Louis, Missouri

St. Louis Insane Asylum. Postcard, 1920s. Available from Built St. Louis.

The St. Louis County Lunatic Asylum was designed by William Rumbold. Construction began in August 1864, and the facility, located at 5400 Arsenal Street, opened on 23 August 1869. Its capacity at that time was 250 patients. When the City of St. Louis separated from St. Louis County in 1876, the name of the institution was changed to St. Louis City Insane Asylum. In 1910, its name was changed to City Sanitarium. Additional wings were added in 1912.

My great-great-grandfather John Gersbacher died in 1914. After his death, his widow Theresa (Vollmer) Gersbacher entered the City Sanitarium. At the time that she entered, clinical diagnoses were not given to patients. Some people ended up at the sanitarium just because they were poor. Treatments included straitjackets, placing people into vats of ice cold water, and placing people into small cubicles with straw floors.

Theresa was enumerated at the City Sanitarium in the 1920 United States census and in the 1930 United States census. She died there on 5 September 1939. According to her death certificate, she had been in the sanitarium for 24 years, 7 months, and 22 days.

Theresa Gersbacher death certificate. 5 September 1939. Missouri State Board of Health.

In 1948, the City Sanitarium became a state institution, and its name was changed to the St. Louis State Hospital. In October 1997, the hospital moved to 5300 Arsenal St. and changed its name to St. Louis Psychiatric Rehabilitation Center.

Built St. Louis: Recalled to Life: St. Louis State Hospital
The Hill: Institutions
Hoosiers and Scrubby Dutch: St. Louis's South Side
St. Louis Psychiatric Rehabilitation Center

Sunday, December 28, 2014

52 Ancestors: #52 Jørgen Gunleksen Juve

I have found many name variants for my 7th and 8th-great-grandfather: given name (Jørgen, Jørund), patronymic (Gunlekson, Gunnleikson, Gundlegson), and farm name (Juve, Gjuve, Djuve, and his father's farm name Nordgarden or Nordgaarden). I will refer to him here by the name Jørgen Gunleksen Juve, the version given in his death record. He is both my 7th- and 8th-great-grandfather because I descend from two of his children.

Jørgen was born about 1688 in Kviteseid, Telemark, Norway. He was the son of Gunnleik Sveinungson Nordgarden and Jorunn Tormodsdatter.

On 8 January 1711 in Seljord, Telemark, Norway, Jørgen married Hilleborg Christiansdatter Roch, the daughter of Christian Christophersen Roch, sorenskriver (magistrate) of Øvre Telemark, Norway.

Source information: Telemark county, Seljord, Parish register (official) nr. I 2 (1689-1713), Marriage records 1709-1711, page 392-393.

Jørgen and Hilleborg had six children: Kristian (born about 1712), Kristoffer (born about 1713), my 7th-great-grandmother Maren (born about 1720), my 6th-great-grandfather Per (born about 1723), Gunnleik (born about 1725), and Jorunn (born about 1728).

In 1737, Jørgen became lensmann (sheriff) of Seljord, Telemark, Norway.

Jørgen died in Seljord on 9 June 1754. His wife Hilleborg had died four days earlier, on 5 June 1754. They were buried on 13 June 1754.

Source information: Telemark county, Seljord, Parish register (official) nr. I 6 (1744-1755), Chronological list 1754, page 128.

Boe (Bø) and Halvorson-Otterholt; Shared Roots in Telemark. Compiled by Melvin and Alpha M. (Boe) Brodshaug, 1984. Published by Arlene (Boe) Christensen and Marjorie (Boe) Bergee. Printed by Anundsen Publishing Co., Decorah, Iowa.
Digitized parish registers: Seljord, 1689-1713
Digitized parish registers: Seljord, 1744-1755
Flatin, Kjetil A. and Flatin, Tov. Rokkerova. Skien: Norig, 1917.
Jørund Gunnleiksson Nordgarden

Saturday, December 27, 2014

Shopping Saturday: Grocery Shopping with Grandma Boe

Photo from

Over the holidays, we were talking and reminiscing about Grandma Boe (my mother's mother Margaret Ann (Schneider) Boe). Sometimes my brother and I would go shopping with her. My brother said that he had loved grocery shopping with Grandma Boe, because she let us get whatever we wanted. If my brother wanted Scooter Pies, she would buy them.

 Trenton Times, 12 September 1979

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Scandinavian Christmas Traditions

In the Scandinavian countries, Christmas is called Jul. The main celebration and the exchange of gifts take place on Christmas Eve. When I was growing up, I always spent Christmas Eve with my father's side of the family, and I spent Christmas Day with my mother's side of the family. My paternal grandmother was 3/4 Swedish and 1/4 Norwegian, and she maintained Swedish traditions.

The Yule goat (Julbock), a straw goat, is a traditional Christmas symbol. In the 19th century, it was considered the bearer of Christmas gifts. It is now typically a Christmas decoration. In Gävle, Sweden, a large Julbock (the Gävle Goat) is erected every year, and is often burned by arsonists before Christmas. Straw Christmas ornaments are also traditional.

Small gnomes called tomte in Sweden and nisse in Denmark and Norway are also associated with Christmas. They were thought to reside on farms. They demanded porridge on Christmas Eve; if they did not receive it, they would leave or make mischief. In the 1840s, the Julnisse became the bearer of Christmas presents, and this tradition spread to Norway and Sweden.

Collectible Christmas plates are produced annually in Denmark. The first collectible Christmas plate was produced by Bing & Grøndahl in 1895. Royal Copenhagen began producing Christmas plates in 1908. My paternal grandparents had a collection of Royal Copenhagen Christmas plates. My parents also have Royal Copenhagen Christmas plates.

In Sweden, a julbord (Christmas table) includes bread, butter, cheese, herring, ham, sausages, meatballs, potatoes, and casseroles. It is eaten in three courses. Pork ribs (ribbe) are popular in Norway.  Rice pudding is also a tratidional Christmas food. Lutefisk (codfish preserved in lye) is traditional in Norway and Sweden. More lutefisk is now eaten in the United States (mostly by Scandinavian-Americans) than in Scandinavia.

Christmas in Scandinavia
Danish Christmas plates
Jul (Denmark)
Jul (Norway)
Jul (Sweden) 
Legend of the Nisse and Tomte
Norwegian Christmas traditions
Scandinavian Traditions
Scandinavians’ Strange Holiday Lutefisk Tradition
Yule Goat

Monday, December 22, 2014

German Christmas Traditions

Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Jena, Thuringia, Germany. 21 December 2007. Photo by Rene Schwietzke [CC BY-SA 2.0 (]. Available at Flickr and Wikimedia Commons.

Christmas Day is known as Weihnachten in Germany and other German-speaking countries such as Austria and Switzerland. Many of our traditional Christmas customs originated in Germany and Austria.

The Christmas tree (Tannenbaum) originated in Germany in the Middle Ages. The first Christmas trees were decorated with fruits and nuts.

After the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther established the tradition of the Christkind (Christ child) as the bringer of Christmas gifts, to discourage the giving of gifts at St. Nicholas' Day (December 6). Christmas Eve became the day for gift-giving. German children receive gifts from either the Christkind or the Weihnachtsmann (Christmas man, the German Santa Claus), depending on the region in which they live.

Christmas markets originated in Germany and Austria during the Middle Ages. These street markets would be open during the four weeks of Advent. Attractions at the markets include a Nativity scene and nutcrackers. Christmas ornaments, decorations, toys, handmade items, and food are sold.

The Christmas carol "Silent Night" originated in Austria. "Stille Nacht" was written in 1818. Joseph Mohr, a Catholic priest, had written a poem two years earlier, and he wanted it set to music so he could use it as a carol at Midnight Mass. His friend Franz Xaver Gruber wrote the music on 24 December 1818, in just a few hours.

Christmas customs and recipes
Christmas market
Christmas Traditions in Germany, Austria, Switzerland
German Christmas traditions
The German Christmas Tree
Stille Nacht - Silent Night
A Symbol for Nuremberg: The Origin of the Christkind

Sunday, December 21, 2014

52 Ancestors: #51 Andrew Lucas

My 6th-great-grandfather Andrew Lucas was born on 5 October 1752 in Shepherdstown, Frederick County, Virginia (now Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, West Virginia). He was the son of Edward Lucas and Elizabeth Corn.

In 1780, he arrived in what is now Nashville, Tennessee on the Donelson flotilla. Nancy Gower was also on the Donelson flotilla; she became Andrew's wife.

Andrew was one of the signers of the Cumberland Compact, which established a constitutional government for the settlement. It was signed in May 1780.

Andrew was shot by Indians while hunting at Drake's Creek. Although he had been shot through the neck and mouth and was bleeding, he managed to crawl into some shrubbery.

On 30 July 1784, the Trustees of the Town of Nashville granted Lot 34 in the Town of Nashville to Andrew Lucas.

Andrew died in 1830. His will was recorded on 4 March 1830 in Davidson County, Tennessee. He left money to his daughters Lavina, Polly, Susan, and Sina. He left his wife Nancy the household and kitchen furniture, stock cattle, hogs, horses, and all the money that was due to him. After her death, anything remaining was to be sold, and they money was to be divided equally among his children. One of the witnesses to the will was his grandson Andrew Gatlin, the son of my 5th-great-grandparents Nathan Gatlin and Obedience Lucas.

The estate inventory of Andrew's son Andrew Lucas Jr. was recorded one day later.

Cumberland Compact, original signers, page 1. Available from Andrew Lucas' signature is the sixth one in the third column. One of the other signers was his half-brother Robert Lucas.

Haywood, John. The Civil and Political History of the State of Tennessee from its Earliest Settlement up to the Year 1796, Including the Boundaries of the State. Nashville, TN: Publishing House of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1891. Page 223. Reprint of 1823 edition published by W. H. Haywood. Available from Internet Archive.

Andrew Lucas will, recorded 4 March 1830. Tennessee, Probate Court Books, 1795-1927. Davidson County. Wills, 1826-1832, Vol. 09. Image 211. Available from FamilySearch.

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Society Saturday: Friends of Wayne Historic Museums

Schuyler-Colfax House. 25 June 1936. Photo by Nathaniel R. Ewan [Public domain]. Available from Library of Congress and Wikimedia Commons.

The Friends of Wayne Historic Museums is a service organization which is dedicated to preserving and creating awareness of the heritage of Wayne, New Jersey.

Three museums are owned and operated by the Wayne Township Parks and Recreation Department: Schuyler-Colfax Historic House Museum, Van Riper-Hopper House, and Van Duyne House. More information is available on the Historic House Museums page of Wayne Township's Web site.

I am a member of the Hester Schuyler Colfax Chapter, NSDAR. The chapter has planted bulbs at the Schuyler-Colfax House, and is working on raising money for the restoration of the house, which is the oldest in Wayne. The house was built by Arent Schuyler in 1695.

Members of the Hester Schuyler Colfax Chapter are pictured on the Volunteer page of Wayne Township's Web site.

A Friends of Wayne Historic Museums membership application is available online.

Friday, December 19, 2014

Continental Army Enters Valley Forge

The Encampment at Valley Forge, PA. Lossing, Benson John. Field Book of the Revolution. Vol. 2. New York: Harper Brothers, 1855. Page 128. Available from Wikipedia.

On 19 December 1777, George Washington and his Continental Army entered their winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. 12,000 men marched in from their encampment at White Marsh (now Fort Washington State Park). They began constructing huts; the first one was completed in three days.

By the end of the winter, more than 2,500 soldiers had died from diseases such as dysentery, influenza, pneumonia, typhoid fever, typhus, and smallpox.

My 5th-great-grandfather Stephen Mayo was at Valley Forge. He was in Weedon's Brigade, 14th Virginia Regiment.The muster roll shows that he was sick in the winter. Fortunately, he survived. 163 men from his brigade died at Valley Forge.

Every December 19 at Valley Forge National Historical Park, there is a march in to commemorate the arrival of the Continental Army.

Annual March In of the Continental Army Commemoration
Continental Army enters winter camp at Valley Forge
The Encampment 
History & Culture - Valley Forge National Historical Park
Valley Forge
Valley Forge Legacy: The Muster Roll Project
Washington leads troops into winter quarters at Valley Forge

Thursday, December 18, 2014

Those Places Thursday: Saints Peter & Paul Catholic Church, St. Louis, Missouri

Saints Peter and Paul Catholic Church is located at 1919 South 7th Street, St. Louis, Missouri, in the Soulard neighborhood.

Saints Peter and Paul Parish was founded in June 1849 by Father Simon Sigrist. It was created to serve the Germans of the first ward of St. Louis. The first church was made of wood and was located on the site of the sanctuary of the current church, but it faced Allen Avenue. Construction began on the second church on 1 October 1851. This church, made of brick, faced 8th Street. It was dedicated on 23 October 1853.

In the early 1870s, Father Franz Goller decided to build a new church with a German Gothic design. Franz Georg Himpler designed the new church, and the cornerstone was laid on 12 June 1872. The church was dedicated on 12 December 1875. The stained glass windows in the sanctuary and above the side altars were manufactured in Innsbruck, Austria. The church's tower was built in 1890, and in 1891, five bells were installed. The interior of the church was completed in 1895, when oil-painted Stations of the Cross from Beuron, Germany were installed.

My Schneider and Gersbacher ancestors attended Saints Peter and Paul Catholic Church. Family baptisms, marriages, and funerals took place there. My maternal grandmother Margaret Ann Schneider was baptized there, and she married her first husband Herbert William Foerstel there.

My cousin and I visited Saints Peter and Paul in August 2012. We were glad that we were able to see the church that was so much a part of our family history.

Sanctuary in Soulard: The First 150 Years of Saints Peter and Paul Parish. St. Louis, MO: Saints Peter and Paul Church, 1999.
Sts Peter and Paul Catholic Church: Our History

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Wedding Wednesday: My Parents' Engagement Announced in Fraternity Publication

My father was a member of Sigma Nu Fraternity. His engagement to my mother was announced in a fraternity publication. Only the clipping was saved, so I do not have the exact source information.

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Travel Tuesday: Margaret Ann (Schneider) Boe's Passport

My maternal grandfather John Boe was Chairman of the Board and President of P. F. Collier, and he frequently traveled. My grandmother Margaret Ann (Schneider) Boe often traveled with him. My aunt Joan has a copy of her passport, which was issued on 20 December 1966. I have scanned the passport. It is fascinating to see the places that my grandmother visited. She and my grandfather traveled all over the world.

Monday, December 15, 2014

Military Monday: Battle of Nashville

The Battle of Nashville took place on December 15-16, 1864. It was the last major battle of the Civil War. This year is the 150th anniversary of the battle.

After the Battle of Franklin, Lieutenant General John Bell Hood and his Confederate troops pursued Major General George Henry Thomas' Union troops to Nashville. They arrived on December 2. Thomas' troops attacked the Confederates on both the left and the right flanks. The attack on the right was intended to be a diversion. Troops from General James B. Steedman's Provisional Division advanced on the right flank at 8:00 AM on December 15. However, the diversion did not work; Hood realized that the main attack was coming from the left, and he moved some of Lieutenant General Stephen D. Lee's troops to the left flank.

At 10:00 AM the attack on the left flank began. Brigadier General James H. Wilson's cavalry corps and Major General Andrew Jackson Smith's "Detachment of the Army of the Tennessee" headed west and then south. Brigadier General Edward Hatch's cavalry brigade headed to the Belle Meade plantation, where they burned Brigadier General James R. Chalmers' supply wagons. Brigadier General Thomas J. Wood's IV Corps advanced on the Confederate line. The five Confederate redoubts on the left were attacked. The last one to fall was Confederate Redoubt No. 1.

On December 16, Major General Thomas once again utilized the strategy of creating a diversion. Two brigades from General Steedman's provisional division and two brigades from Samuel Beatty's division of Brigadier General Wood's IV Corps attacked Peach Orchard Hill. Hood sent reinforcements to Peach Hill; the Confederate line of defense at Compton's Hill (now Shy's Hill) became thinner.

At 3:30 PM, Brigadier General John McArthur told Smith and Thomas that unless he was given orders not to within the next five minutes, he would attack Compton's Hill and the Confederate line to its east. Shortly afterward, McArthur's three brigades began their attack. They captured 1,533 men, 85 officers (including Brigadier General Thomas Benton Smith), and eight cannons. Colonel William M. Shy was killed.

The Battle of Nashville Preservation Society's events in remembrance of the sesquicentennial of the Battle of Nashville began on Saturday, 13 December 2014, and continue on Monday, 15 December 2014 and Tuesday, 16 December 2014.

Map of the battle of Nashville, 1864. 18 March 2007. By Andrei nacu [GFDL ( or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (]. Available from Wikimedia Commons.

Nashville, Tenn. Federal outer line. Photo by Jacob F. Coonley, 16 December 1864.  Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Available from

Battle of Nashville
Battle of Nashville Preservation Society, Inc.
150th Anniversary (1864–2014) This Month in the Civil War: Battle of Nashville
Zimmerman, Mark. Guide to Civil War Nashville. Nashville, TN: Battle of Nashville Preservation Society, 2004.

Sunday, December 14, 2014

52 Ancestors: #50 Halvor Eriksen Otterholt

My 3rd-great-grandfather Halvor Eriksen Otterholt was born on 28 June 1821 in Bø, Telemark, Norway, and was baptized on 1 July 1821. He was the son of Erik Halvorsen Sønstebø (also known as Erik Halvorsen Brenne) and Aaste Kittilsdatter. Erik was the sister of Kari Halvorsdatter Sønstebø; both are my 4th-great-grandparents through different lines of descent.

On 17 July 1845 in Bø. Halvor married Guro Hansdatter Askilt. They had seven children in Norway: Erik, born 25 April 1846; Hans, born 5 August 1847; Kittel or Kjetil (later known as Charles), born 11 September 1850; Torkel, born 6 September 1852; my 2nd-great-grandmother Aaste, born 3 February 1854; Anne, born 25 February 1858; and Kari, born 7 September 1861.

In 1865, Halvor and his family lived on the Otterholdt (or Otterholt) farm in Bø. He was listed as a Gaardbrgr og Selveier (farmer or owner, freeholder).

In 1867, Halvor and his family immigrated to the United States. In Boe (Bø) and Halvorson-Otterholt: Shared Roots in Telemark (compiled by Melvin and Alpha M. (Boe) Brodshaug, 1984; published by Arlene (Boe) Christensen and Marjorie (Boe) Bergee; printed by Anundsen Publishing Co., Decorah, Iowa), there is a quote from a letter written to Leland Otterholt by Aaste Lie: "The Otterholts were a prosperous people. Halvor loved the horses and bet on them but lost. Being proud, he decided to emigrate to America with his family." Although there may have been other reasons for the family's emigration, I suspect that there is at least a grain of truth to that statement. The family left Norway from Skien, Telemark on the Rjukan, and they arrived in Quebec, Canada on 30 May 1867.

Halvor and his family settled in Canisteo, Dodge County, Minnesota. About 1868, Halvor and Guro's last child, Johanna, was born. The family was enumerated in Canisteo in the 1870 United States census. Halvor was a farmer. His real estate had a value of $800, and his personal estate had a value of $340. In the United States, he was usually known as Halvor Erickson. Some of his children used the surname Halvorson, and some used the surname Otterholt.

By 1875, the family had moved to Swenoda, Swift County, Minnesota. In 1880, they lived in West Bank, Swift County, Minnesota. Halvor became a citizen of the United States on 18 May 1880.

Halvor applied for a land patent through the Homestead Act of 1862, for 80 acres of land located in the south half, northwest quarter, section 32 of Township 120 North of Range No. 41 west of the Principal Meridian, Swift County, Minnesota. He had settled on the land in June 1873 and built a house and a stable, and dug a well. His patent was issued on 25 July 1882. His son-in-law Jorgen Jorgensen Boe (my 2nd-great-grandfather) received his certificate the same day, for nearby land. Halvor later applied for an additional land patent, for 80 acres of land located in the east half, northeast quarter, section 31 of Township 120 North of Range No. 41 west of the Principal Meridian, Swift County, Minnesota. His patent was issued on 1 April 1892.

Halvor died on 14 January 1898. He was buried in Big Bend Lutheran Church Cemetery in Milan, Chippewa County, Minnesota.

Telemark county, Bø, Parish register (official) nr. 6 (1815-1831), Birth and baptism records 1821, page 100-101.

Telemark county, Bø, Parish register (official) nr. 7 (1831-1848), Marriage records 1845, page 289.

Telemark county, Bø, Parish register (official) nr. 9 (1862-1879), Migration records 1868, page 382.

Passenger list, Rjukan, 1867. Passenger Lists, 1865–1935. Microfilm Publications T-479 to T-520, T-4689 to T-4874, T-14700 to T-14939, C-4511 to C-4542. Library and Archives Canada, n.d. RG 76-C. Department of Employment and Immigration fonds. Library and Archives Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Available from Canadian Passenger Lists, 1865-1935 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2010.

Halvor Erikson naturalization, 18 May 1880. Swift County District Court, State of Minnesota. From Halvor Eriksen land entry case file no. 4485, 1882.

Halvor Eriksen, Swift County, Minnesota. Certificate no. 4485. United States Bureau of Land Management, 25 July 1882.